Seeking help with UHF tracking ground station

Hello! I’m a junior in aerospace engineering and have spent the last year refurbishing my school’s UHF ground station. I recently heard my first satellite this past weekend (Observation #6646518). However, I don’t think my station is capable of receiving packets. Below I’ll list my RF and rotator equipment:

RF Equipment: M2 420XP22 Antenna → 2m LMR 400 Coax Cable → EME2-432 LNA / Preamplifier → RTL-SDR → Raspberry Pi

Rotator Equipment: SPID AZ/EL Rotator → ROT2PROG Controller → hamlib → gpredict

Below is an image of me and the setup:

The lab I work at has a Keysight FieldFox VNA that has allowed me to perform some measurements on the RF equipment.

I cannot upload more media images as a new user, but I do have S11 and VSWR plots of the antennas as well as a S21 plot of the LNA that I can attach later.

Some of my next steps are: follow the “Setting the Gain” guide and find the gain and have the SATNOGS client communicate with the rotator (right now I just schedule the pass and then track the pass on gpredict).

Is there anything else I can do to improve my station? I’m a bit concerned about my signal strength. When looking at the waterfalls produced by other users (Observation #6646277 occurred roughly at the same time as my observation listed above), their signal strengths are notably higher. I know the equipment between stations is different, but my goal is be able to receive packets on UHF and then install an S-Band dish. Any help or advice would be greatly appreciated. Thanks!

Apologies in advance if any of the formatting is hard to read.

~ Ben Weber ​KK7HJU


Welcome to the forum!

Yes, adjusting the gain is the next step. Your observation used 0 gain wile the other observation had 32.8. The eme2 432 has 20.3dB (assuming it is on). That’s a difference of 12.5dB which is quite a lot.


Glad to hear that you’re getting the setup back and running… Yes your gain is set to 0…Just Run satnogs-setup, open the ‘Advanced’ menu, then the Radio settings. Set the gain in the SATNOGS_RF_GAIN variable.
Your comparison observation had, like 32.8 for the gain. You can find this out by looking at an observations Metadata


A very nice setup, maybe you can share your satnogs-client configuration?

sudo satnogs-setup and then select Advanced and next Support please share the output.


Here’s the support report:

------------[ copy here ]------------
“versions”: {
“satnogs-client”: “1.6”,
“satnogs-client-ansible”: “202109022142”,
“satnogs-flowgraphs”: “1.4-1”,
“gr-satnogs”: “”,
“gr-soapy”: “”,
“gnuradio”: “”,
“satnogs-config”: “0.12”
“state”: {
“is-applied”: true,
“pending-tags”: null
“system”: {
“date”: “2022-10-30T18:00:48.792617+00:00”,
“distribution”: {
“DESCRIPTION”: “Raspbian GNU/Linux 10 (buster)”,
“RELEASE”: “10”,
“CODENAME”: “buster”,
“ID”: “Raspbian”
“pending-updates”: true,
“platform”: {
“system”: “Linux”,
“node”: “ii-lab-satnog-uhf”,
“release”: “5.10.103-v7+”,
“version”: “#1529 SMP Tue Mar 8 12:21:37 GMT 2022”,
“machine”: “armv7l”,
“processor”: “”
“memory”: {
“total”: 968052736,
“available”: 693534720,
“percent”: 28.4,
“used”: 203833344,
“free”: 325009408,
“active”: 220110848,
“inactive”: 353509376,
“buffers”: 41594880,
“cached”: 397615104,
“shared”: 6483968,
“slab”: 51810304
“disk”: {
“total”: 31078248448,
“used”: 3332460544,
“free”: 26428657664,
“percent”: 11.2
“configuration”: {
“satnogs_antenna”: “RX”,
“satnogs_api_token”: “[redacted]”,
“satnogs_rf_gain”: “0”,
“satnogs_rot_model”: “Rot2Prog”,
“satnogs_rot_port”: “/dev/ttyUSB4”,
“satnogs_rx_samp_rate”: “2.048e6”,
“satnogs_soapy_rx_device”: “driver=rtlsdr”,
“satnogs_station_elev”: “347”,
“satnogs_station_id”: “2602”,
“satnogs_station_lat”: “33.417565”,
“satnogs_station_lon”: “-111.93322”
------------[ copy end ]-------------

Right now my SATNOGS_RF_GAIN is at 0 dB. I’ve been switching the SATNOGS_RF_GAIN around during passes to see how the system performs but I’m getting mixed results.

I am most confused on the SATNOGS_RF_GAIN how that interfaces with the LNA and rtlsdr. I have been reading through the setting the gain article and this forum post. However, when I would adjust the rtlsdr gain through satnogs-setup and checked the noise floor on CubicSDR or gqrx, I didn’t see the noise floor change. Is there an equation or expression I can use to calculate what my SATNOGS_RF_GAIN needs to be? I might be going about the process wrong…




Yes, the gain settings can be a problem, not all SDR’s can use the same values, below a list with the allowed values and some best practices.

The supported gain values for a RTL-SDR, there are 29 in total, use the exact values, no rounding.

0.0 0.9 1.4 2.7 3.7 7.7 8.7 12.5 14.4 15.7 16.6 19.7 20.7 22.9 25.4 28.0 29.7 32.8 33.8 36.4 37.2 38.6 40.2 42.1 43.4 43.9 44.5 48.0 49.6

For a non LNA setup with short coax length use something like 38.6 and go higher following the values from the list if necessary.

A LNA setup (where the pre amp is close to the antenna) start with 22.9


The SATNOGS_RF_GAIN variable is read at the start of an observation and thus can’t be adjusted in real time, in contrast with using CubicSDR or gqrx.

GRIFEX is a good satellite to listen to for data.

The UHF repeater downlink on the ISS “Mode V/U FM - Voice Repeater” would be good to listen to in real-time with gqrx since it is usually active. Then you can adjust gains during the pass to watch the noise floor move and transfer the number over to the SatNOGS client.


I went ahead and paused the tracking station. The antennas used were measured as broken and I am in contact with M2 about how to fix them.

I did install an UHF Eggbeater antenna this last weekend and it has been performing a bit better than the tracking system. When the pass is ideal, the M2 has been able to get TLM packets somewhat reliably. Seen here in Observation #6735476 and Observation #6735493.

There’s a few potential issues with this setup I’m looking to solve in the upcoming week. Specifically:

  • New power supply for the Raspberry Pi, I’m currently not supplying enough current for the pi.

  • Get a UHF bandpass filter. Being on a campus, I think I might have a fair amount of interference. Any recommendations? Looking into some from antennas-amplifiers.

  • Switch from an RTL-SDR to a HackRF One. I have a spare one on hand and have been playing around on L-Band. From what I’ve been seeing on GQRX and CubicSDR, the more advanced gain options are super helpful when detecting a signal.

Thanks for the help all! I’ll keep updating here if I have any questions.